Are We Alone - Full Length Documentary

Are We Alone – Full Length Documentary

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This is one question that has haunted mankind for long. Man cannot rest until he finds out if there is another living and breathing planet in space.

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This undying search has led to the various space missions including the Viking Mission to Mars and the findings of the Jupiter’s satellites. Starting with the new wing of science, Astrobiology, that deals with the study of a possible life form based on the research and analysis of life forms on Earth, man hopes to find the answer after all.

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you we are surrounded by thousands and thousands of stars are we alone in this vast cosmic landscape science is searching for an answer and has outlined two hypotheses one we are alone and life is an anomalous fact that can only be explained by an unpredictable and eventful combination of circumstances to life is implicit in the nature of the universe and its appearance anywhere is unavoidable the systematic search for extraterrestrial life has just begun its discovery would be the most important leaders in the history of mankind presently from out there only the anchor of an intense silence reaches us you this gigantic diaphanous mass occupies a space that is a thousand times greater than the solar system it is one of the many interstellar clouds that the universe contains hundreds of organic molecules accumulate in its interior many of them are identical or similar to those that make up the living beings on earth as knowledge of the universe advances it is confirmed that the ingredients of life do not exist only on earth to the contrary as living beings we are made from raw material that is abundant in the universe and think of the origin of life is perhaps in three different ways in one extreme life is a miracle life comes from God a unique event if so science can't address the question because science can't address miracles miracles by definition define a chiral law but life may have been consistent with physics and chemistry and yet a very rare perhaps a unique event very improbable because of chance and if so again science has trouble addressing the question because how can one go to a laboratory and study an improbable event so only in the third case if life is an inevitable consequence of chemistry and physics if anywhere there's water in rock and air life arises then science can hope to answer the question when we asked ourselves about the mystery of life we almost always look at the earth for the answer we have no other reference although the earth with its inexhaustible variety of forms plants and animals is like a box of surprises and new questions more than a direct answer no one is sure where life begins and ends on earth this is possible that something exists that is not just a copy more or less advanced than what we have on earth we already know with much precision what caused life to develop on our planet everything began with water and with the release of certain chemical elements like carbon and oxygen which combined to form organic molecules these molecules thanks to the light of the Sun electric discharges from the atmosphere and the energy from the interior of the earth became incipient living beings thus starting with water chemical elements and a source of energy the most elemental living organism known today appeared bacteria in 1953 the American chemist Stanley Miller and Harold Urey tried to reproduce the origin of life in a laboratory they placed water vapor methane and ammonia in a test tube and ran a continuous electric current through it almost one week later the water had acquired color and new compounds it appeared including two amino acids which are the basic building blocks of life this combination however continued to be just as lifeless perhaps something similar to this experiment occurred on earth but if this is true it was nothing more than another failed attempt that kept the planet during its early stages as a barren lifeless place experiments aimed at reproducing the origin of life have helped science to define with greater precision the frontier between living material and lifeless material between life and non-life are you now see a characteristic a series of specific characteristics that make a living being different from a non living being for example replication a living being should replicate generate progeny it should produce offspring whether they are molecular children or seller's replica thean meaning that replication should not be exact from father to child because we would laugh diversity at the end know that I said in replication there should be a series of mutations that introduce changes between the parental generation and the generation of the design that I d better see that and these changes will make the descendants different from each other and cumbia being different amongst themselves means they will react in different ways to stimuli zombie aside a selective pressure into environmental changes a ser diferente embassy there for Samuel adapt better than a la gente a loss a stimulus a la space living beings therefore replicate but an evolved hace Uno's market and they have a metabolisms proton to silicon this means that living being any man are capable of carrying out a series of process it is beyond capacity the consumption of energy they produce biomolecules what is going on from a disorganized outside world they produce organized molecules which they used to grow and for their own metabolism are they not ask it's possible that these are the three fundamental characteristics of living witnesses to this replication is the essence mutation and therefore evolution and metabolism double via email please at the limit of these requirements we find the viruses which most scientists don't consider living beings it's true that they reproduce and evolve that they transform with several mutations but they only do so when they infect a cell which they use so that they can reproduce themselves thus viruses only act as living beings when they act as parasites on a cell the question of this transition from non-life to life that's in some sense of philosophical question and yet many of us who work in the field have our prejudices and mine is that the transition occurs when competition and natural selection begins you can imagine inanimate nature molecules rocks water that's not alive that doesn't compete but at some point a level of organization occurred in molecules molecular systems that could replicate themselves and when that happened and because of the richness of organic molecules available you had slight differences in these self-replicating molecules somewhere a little more efficient than others and so life begins to compete for resources for energy and to me the crucial stage in the origin of life is that very moment when competition led to selection that's Darwinian evolution every day the great milestones in the path of the evolution of species are better understood the first step of life is still unknown however in laboratories biologists and chemists try to reproduce time and time again how this first gestation took place to do so the key is to manage to get certain chemical molecules to combine in a specific way which is what provokes the miracle of life the recipe of the great Alchemist is a secret scientists have no other option but to continue investigating how the miracle of life occurred and the only place where they know that this has happened is on the earth just like the rest of the solar system the earth was formed over 4.5 billion years ago when the remains of a supernova like this one crossed a vast cloud of cosmic dust after this accidental birth our planet was subject to bombardment by meteorites and comets during a large part of its history during the first part of its existence the earth was an inhospitable place aside from external aggression there was also a great volcanic activity on its surface this violent phase however favored the evaporation of water and the emission of gases like carbon dioxide and methane the atmosphere was slowly created with these elements if this had not occurred the earth would eventually have been burned by the sun's rays during this infernal period the basic broth a kind of culture medium or breeding ground for life was also formed the water of the Seas penetrated the cracks of the sea bottom and returned to the sea through the volcanoes this water was enriched with minerals that it had taken from the heart of the earth which when it came into contact with the atmosphere provoked the Great Leap chemistry opened the way to biology and the appearance of the first bacteria present day organisms could not survive in such a toxic environment but the planets path towards milder stable conditions allowed the first signs of life to maintain themselves and evolve from their simple forms towards more complex beings the impact of meteorites did not suddenly stop in fact many years later the dinosaurs disappeared into their effects but fortunately biodiversity was well developed at that time and even though species disappeared in huge numbers life was already deeply rooted hundreds of organisms were able to survive in the middle of the impressive destruction life on Earth has overcome a variety of climatic and environmental changes but as laughable as the changes may be a living being that does not depend on water oxygen and solar energy or one that can survive in such extreme temperatures is not conceivable in recent years however the discovery of organisms that live on the fringes of these laws are modifying our ideas about what a living being needs these organisms are known as extremophiles the lovers of very radical external conditions these waters belong to the river tinkle in the southern Spanish province of wedlock it's peculiar blood red color which gave it its name is due to the metals that it bears they come from the rocks that are drank from its headwaters and from spillages for mines here a community of living beings has been discovered that challenges the traditional point of view concerning the environmental conditions that allow for survival these microscopic images have been recorded in these unhealthy waters which show some organisms that assume basic vital functions without difficulties Clemente loss characteristic are too extreme characteristics of the river bajo the low pH in other words the acidity of the system which is around 2 and the high concentration of heavy metals when it doesn't they made always beside heavy metals are toxic especially those in the mining area of the river Tinto essentially copper which is used to prevent the growth of fungi and vineyards and arsenic and cadmium etc BDS the society was fine on eukaryotic organism asa season not the prokaryotes the bacteria that eat minerals but eukaryotes algae fungi filament fungi protozoans amoebas etc which are present in a place where no one in the right mind with you think that they could exist in Rwanda Nadia and finally Julia bin Saleh existed the mysterious life that is hidden in the river tinto has disconcerted scientists and not only because it is a unique class of extrema files it is extraordinary because in these conditions a certain degree of biological variety has developed with more or less common algae fungi and amoebas their ability to adapt is such that we could say that they don't appear to be terrestrial the first extrema files were discovered a little over 30 years ago in Yellowstone Park in the United States they were organisms that survived in temperatures over 100 degrees Celsius they appeared in geological chimneys where water vapor emerged from the interior of the earth scientists have also found living beings that are fond of extreme temperatures in the cold Antarctic rocks in the ice or in the lakes of water found below they have found bacteria and algae living hundreds of meters below the surface they are cold lovers living beings that have the peculiarity of growing slowly since the low temperatures slow down their metabolisms at movie cave in Romania a group of several animals have lived isolated from the outside world for about five and a half million years there is no oxygen or light there but 48 different species survive in this place it's trophic chain takes advantage of the energy from the chemical elements that exist in the cave in order to produce nutritional substances for feeding these strange mounts on the Australian coast are known as stromatolites they are the fossil remains of bacteria that have been grouped in layers the lower layers are formed by anaerobic bacteria which are beings that strange as it may seem do not need oxygen to live even today there is a class of organisms that exist in environments that lack oxygen of which our intestine is one another's there are even more cases of life in anonymous conditions in the Dead Sea and in specific salt lagoons of Africa's Rift Valley there are some salt living bacteria to survive in a salty medium these organisms have developed their own mechanisms to avoid dehydration let's table filia local extrema files are what allows us to open a series of scenarios which means if there are microorganisms that can grow at high temperatures the model of originating life in an underwater volcano at a hundred or so degrees is not absurd because the day there are microorganisms that can do it in a surface salt marsh the high concentrations due to evaporation specific interactions are favorable which can happen since there are microorganisms that exist in these conditions today DX is Timmy granny's Moscow UNICEF competence if life emerged in such unfavorable environments it is therefore a much stronger impulse than what our limited vision expected the discovery of these living beings in unimaginable conditions has had repercussions among those searching for the presence of life in space if life here was possible in conditions that were different from what we enjoy today why couldn't the same thing happen on other planets geologists biologists chemists and astrophysicists have come together in a new scientific field astrobiology they have established new expectations about what type of life to search for and where to look for it okay Amos go see what we have successfully achieved is the collaboration of geologists and planetary astrophysics is that hero and the people dedicated to the original evolutionary chemistry car earth a la amiga Baloo diva in this way geologists give us a guideline for example how the planet has evolved into a physical body at the same time they join with planetary astrophysicists clinic who explain how the earth was formed and how this formation is the result of the evolution of the universe itself on the other hand the people who study evolutionary chemistry complex molecules that evolved when it was and Ritz the knowledge of the geologists about what existed on the original the primitive earth locale en la tierra pinna jennean locality arapaima tia all these related sciences of astrobiology are drawn from a basic idea the appearance of life as a natural phenomena as the inevitable consequence of a universe in continual change and evolution in a short middle term to the master biology is searching to contrast the idea that life is a cosmic imperatives by applying the scientific method to it the scientific method that is based on everything we know from how a mobile phone works to how bridge is built or how to launch a spacecraft into outer space this scientific method requires more than one example of a specific phenomenon metal filament life on Earth as we know it has extraordinary biodiversity a biodiversity that is manifested in millions as different species on earth me on a display piece all of these forms of life however are based on certain unique principles so that the phenomenon of life as we know it on earth is the manifestation of a unique phenomenon therefore the scientific method cannot be directly applied as a result we have to go to other places in order to contrast whether life exists or has existed feeding you in 1975 the direct search for life in the solar system began when NASA sent the Viking spacecrafts aloft with Mars as their destination today the red planet is very cold with average temperatures of minus 53 degrees Celsius which has frozen the water that at some point covered its surface it is dominated by a current geological relief of deep craters and dusty Dunes which gives it the appearance of a rocky desert on the other hand the absence of an ozone layer subjects Mars to relentless ultraviolet solar radiation in this dead land it would seem impossible to find life the results of the tests carried out by the Viking mission confirmed this hypothesis and the scientific interest in Mars was set aside studies of extrema files on earth a lower have put Mars back in the game for scientists the absence of signs of life in the two places where the Vikings from scratch took samples is not final proof they have to search other parts of the planet with milder environments and investigate the possibility that life manifested itself there in the past well I think to me the fact that we're saying that life exists in these very extreme environments on earth gives us optimism that will find life other places because we know for example on Mars that there is liquid water at times we know that there's ice we know that they're very dry regions they're probably very salty regions too and so it seems to me that the fact that we find life existing on earth in these extreme environments means that we don't know yet the limits every year the limits increase in terms of our discoveries so why not broaden the limits a bit more to to the environments of some of the planets I think Mars is the planet of greatest interest for astrobiological exploration first because it's nearby and therefore is is fairly easy to explore or at least relatively easy to explore and second because although today Mars is a very forbidding planet low temperatures very little atmosphere tectonic Lee it appears to be almost dead at least at the time that life emerged on Earth Mars was a planet much like much more like our own perhaps not identical both much more it had active volcanism it had a thicker atmosphere at least episodic Lee it had liquid water and so therefore Mars is a good candidate to ask the question directly did life appear more than once and if it did appear on Mars the way we will recognize it is in general the same way that we recognize evidence of ancient life on earth through microfossils through the influence of microbial communities on sediments and through chemical signatures that they impart to rocks nineteen eighty-four a scientific expedition goes to the Antarctic to collect samples of meteorites the solitude Emma conditions of the frozen continent have kept them intact here they discovered a rock that became a key piece in the investigation of Mars it weighs almost two kilograms and is known as a LH in 1996 at NASA David McKay and his team presented it to the public as a Martian meteorite with possible fossil evidence of certain living beings since then the era light alongside others that have been previously collected have triggered a debate within the scientific community on whether or not we are standing before the definitive evidence that Mars also for life we've been studying the ALH meteorite for a long time now we're also looking at other Mars meteorites there are now 18 different Mars meteorites and we've looked in detail in about four of them and we have found what we believe to be signs of life in all four meteorites that we have studied first alh then then nakhla which fell in Egypt in 1911 then sure Gotti which fell in India and then Lafayette which was recovered in indiana USA we think we see evidence for life we have to prove it we haven't proved it yet to the satisfaction of the scientific community but we're working on that how long will that take possibly a few more years we hope that we can do that either prove it or disprove it within say three or four more years and that's what we're we're we're working on through the study of meteorites and three new explorations scientists hope to decipher the Martian enigmas in the period of just one decade the European Space Agency is also participating in the race with the Mars Express which will be launched in 2004 it is a satellite that will be placed in orbit around Mars and which has a landing module both devices will carry out in-depth studies of the planet and with the images obtained precise maps of the territory will be drawn up mission is since the American Viking missions in the 1970s there has not been another mission with such a central astrobiological focus in its investigations as the Mars Express as who see misty and furthermore the input this spacecraft has a landing vehicle if the beagle 2 with a series of instruments to analyze the chemistry and organic substances of the planet jamika such as the rock minerals and the surface of Mars they can also take images of a surface and measure the composition of the atmosphere around the landing area it even has instruments able to reach a depth between one and one and a half meters in order to analyze the subsoil which has not been affected by ultraviolet radiation and where indications of life may be preserved better than on the surface metra may be a pro forma de par annales RSS oops way lo que no sido affect oddo por la radiation ultraviolet en el cual a pedido preserve our say in deseos de vida in addition to Mars the scientific community is investigating other planets within the solar system mercury and venus due to their extremely hot climates have been ruled out Uranus Neptune and Pluto due to their extremely cold climates are not worthy of consideration either Saturn and Jupiter are the only two left too gassy giants where life seems impossible these planets however have satellites orbiting around them that are arousing scientific interest in the case of Jupiter the moons IO and Europa two satellites which thanks to the energy of the planet they orbit are much hotter than what was expected given their great distance from the Sun IO is the satellite with the most volcanoes interruption in the entire solar system which is a positive symptom due to the history of the earth it is known that volcanoes can play a fundamental role in the generation of life in contrast however signs of water have not been detected yet which for the moment reduces the hope of finding life Europa seems to be a more gifted contender it's frozen surface may shelter an enormous ocean below with organic molecules if these were to exist just as it happened on earth the discharge of some kind of energy may provoke the appearance of life and in this aspect there are also indications that the moon Europa has volcanoes which is why some scientists hope that life exists or has existed there so Mars is our best candidate but on a longer time scale I think the exploration of Europa is going to be interesting there's every reason to believe there is an a long standing water body and ocean if you will on Europa and that could have incubated life it may actually have a higher probability than Mars of actually having still living organisms so we might be able to look by biological techniques for life on Europa whereas on Mars I think largely it's going to be a paleontological exercise in the orbit around Saturn there is a satellite called Titan which with a diameter less than half the size of the earth is very similar to our planet in other aspects in 1980 the Voyager 1 spacecraft passed by Titan at a distance of 7,000 kilometers which enabled it to carry out a detailed study the images show a disturbing orange atmosphere with a touch of blue on the horizon mainly made up of methane according to the scientists who study the data the smell of the air of Titan should be like the inside of an oil refinery methane is the star gasps of this satellite it is suspected that it may exist in three states solid liquid and gas so perhaps there are giant oceans of methane with polar ice caps made up of this compound it is also possible that there is an evaporation cycle and methane rain is produced if this were true it could be compared with the earth and water as if methane were able to fulfill the role that water plays on our planet in this case cells could exist that have methane in their interior just like ours have water if this hypothesis of methane beings were true we would be dealing with organisms that live at very low temperatures with very slow biochemistry one of the key attributes for life on Earth is the presence of water and I think it's fair to say that in most astrobiological exploration people look for water first and then if there's water on a planet or a moon then perhaps there will be some sort of life so the question becomes is there another substance that might do the same job as water and it has been suggested from time to time that methane would be a substitute for water as a substrate for life if so it's not easy to imagine what kind of life that would be certainly it would not be a life that would be easily recognizable in terms of our experience on earth whether or not it's impossible I don't know but I I would certainly think it would be much less probable than a life that is based on a on a watery environment and so in that regard when we think about a place like Titan well perhaps Titan could have given rise to life it certainly has given rise to complex organic molecules but in the absence of water i think the probability the life would have emerged from that chemistry is much much lower in 1998 the Cassini spacecraft was sent into space with Saturn as its destination one of its missions is to study Titan thanks to its atmospheric probe which will descend down onto titan's surface this will take place in 2004 starting them perhaps the mystery of the nothing and satellite can be deciphered the first explorations of the solar system have not provided proof of extraterrestrial life but the absence of evidence as paradoxical as it may seem increases the belief that life is possible the mechanisms of life are better understood today furthermore it is also known that life can develop in much more open conditions than was originally believed the question is what kind of life are we dealing with instead of beings with antenna and extraordinary abilities more realistic scientists assert that there is no intelligent life in our immediate cosmic environment it's one thing to find unicellular organisms on a planet but it's something very different to believe that these beings necessarily evolved into such complex forms as human beings if earth is the point of reference the data is devastating of the millions of species that have prospered here only one has been able to develop technological intelligence we can then say well what are the conditions that might favor intelligent life and certainly one is environmental you certainly need an environment that's capable of sustaining the biology of a large organism and on our planet that only became possible when oxygen rose to high concentrations in the atmosphere and then second one can ask what kind of lifestyles would facilitate the origin of intelligence and there certainly predation is important once you have to get your food by capturing prey there are strong selective pressure for very very sophisticated sensory apparatus and the neurological ability to integrate sensory apparatus and there's also very strong selective selective forces favoring highly sophisticated muscular systems and again a highly sophisticated coordination of the neurological and muscular systems once those were in place then I think the basic biological attributes that could lead to intelligence were there the lack of existing intelligent life in the proximities of the earth does not mean that it cannot be found in other parts of the universe nothing is impossible within the magnitudes and dimensions of the cosmos the universe has hundreds of thousands of galaxies which at the same time have thousands of millions of stars some of which are accompanied by planets there are so many possibilities that we have to search far beyond the limits of the solar system in 1996 the first extrasolar planets were detected and since then their numbers have increased unceasingly adding up to hundreds of them today most of them are big planets normally located very close to their corresponding Sun the main difficulty is that they cannot be observed directly yet their existence is a deduction made from the behavior of the star the most successful techniques so far for finding planets around other stars is the so-called radial velocity or spectroscopic technique this technique is an indirect technique you don't actually see the planet what you see instead is the star moving around the center of mass of the planet star system that is we all are familiar with planets moving around a star but in addition the star moves around on a much smaller orbit the center of mass of the star planet system so we detect the planets by seeing the star move around and we detect the stellar motion by looking at the line-of-sight changes in the velocity of the star using this the Doppler technique which are familiar with from hearing a train whistle as a trans coming towards you or away from you same thing with a star the Stars it's coming towards you it's light has shifted towards the blue as it's moving away from us it's shifted towards the red so by watching very carefully how the spectral lines of the star change with time one could infer that the star is moving back and forth on its orbit and something must be causing that motion and we now know that that is actually a planet NASA and the European Space Agency plan to place infrared telescopes in space in order to observe the extrasolar planets directly if they have an atmosphere that would be a good sign since an atmosphere normally regulates extreme temperatures which are found quite frequently on many planets the telescopes will analyze these atmospheres in order to find evidence of the necessary chemical elements for life to be produced oxygen which is present in our atmosphere is one of the key signs of life but it is not the only element that they are looking for there is also the signature of co2 carbon dioxide and water vapor and these three compounds are all involved in the reaction that produce oxygen by biology which is oxygenic photosynthesis and if they're there are these three signature it could be a very very good indicator for the presence of some photosynthetic activity and another signature is the signature spectroscopic signature of methane because it's it seemed that the primitive life-forms on earth could have produce huge amount of methane in the atmosphere and this could be detected there was a very efficient telescope the possibility of an intelligent civilization in some corner of the universe has encouraged the sending of messages into outer space these images place us in the year nineteen seventy-four when a communication was broadcast from adesivo Porto Rico towards a dense ball of stars located 25,000 light-years away from us if someone was able to decode the message he or she or it would find a pictogram explaining the foundations of life on Earth meanwhile some spacecraft sent into outer space which are never going to return to earth having raved plaques about who we are the Voyager spaceships more specifically have all kinds of sounds and images even those of animals tribal songs and a Beethoven string quartet but almost 40,000 years will have passed before the Voyager approaches the first star the SETI program is another initiative for establishing contact they are doing more than just sending messages they are now trying to receive them that is if there is an alien civilization that uses radio waves in its interstellar communications to powerful radio telescopes are being used to detect radio signals from space which are later analyzed in an enormous computer information is so abundant that the SETI program allows anyone who wants to use his or her computer to help with this task of distinguishing captured signals when the computer is resting a program is activated to analyze the data provided by the central computer almost 3 million people collaborate with the SETI program some curious signals have been detected but after being thoroughly investigated it has been proved that they were nothing more than telecommunication equipment interferences to date we have not received news from outer space Western culture suffered an earthquake when Copernicus discovered that the earth and man were not the center of the universe but mere extras in a corner of the cosmos the discovery of planets revolving around other stars now shows us that planets are a common occurrence with this knowledge someday it may be possible to solve the question of whether we as the inhabitants of the earth do or don't represent the only life-forms in the universe seems such as England I'm we find living beings in other parts of the universe it will be without a doubt it's the most important discovery in the history of mankind but we will therefore be able to show in a palpable way that life is a consequence of the evolution of the universe furthermore since we proudly believe that we are unique and the most powerful living beings we will realize that we are nothing more than a coincidence but frozen in the evolution of the universe this will add in an important way to our understanding of humility as human beings we should be humble not only with respect to ourselves but also with respect to other species that live on the planet we should also give life the respect it deserves and every ass betta goetta we the same it if you imagine looking out above the earth's atmosphere into the dark starry night and imagining the immensity of the universe its would be rather uh discomforting to think that we are the only sentient beings out there I think would make the universe so much feel like a much more pleasant place if we realize it's somewhere out there on another rock orbiting another star like our own could be another sort of being perhaps some we're less perhaps not so similar looking back in our direction and wondering if we existed life beyond earth is today I've offices more than a certainty a new science astrobiology is knocking on the gates of the universe once again with more improved technical equipment and greater knowledge the cosmos will shine then with greater magnificence and man will be amazed once again before this manifestation after all lights why not just might emerge at enormous for in any place and in whatever form he chooses you

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